Monday, March 23, 2009

Physical education

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

In most educational systems, physical education (P.E.) class,Phys Ed, is a course that utilizes learning in the cognitive, affective and psychomotor domains in a play or movement exploration setting. The term physical education is most commonly used in this way; however, this denotes rather that "they have participated in the subject area, not studied it." Physical education (PE) is the interdisciplinary study of all areas of science relating to the transmission of physical knowledge and skills to an individual or a group, the application of these skills, and their results.

The primary aims of physical education have varied, based on the needs of the time and place. Most modern schools' goal is to make students with the knowledge, skills, capacities, and values along with the enthusiasm to maintain a healthy lifestyle into adulthood. In all states in the United States, physical education is offered to students from grades K to 12. However, Illinois is the only state that requires physical education in all schools (even private schools) for all grade levels. Mandatory physical education is up to each individual State and school district. Most states do require physical education 6th-9th grade and offer "elective" physical education classes 10th-12th grades. Some schools also require physical education as a way to promote weight loss in students. Activities included in the program are designed to promote physical fitness, to develop motor skills, to instill knowledge and understanding of rules, concepts, and strategies, and to teach students to work as part of a team, or as individuals, in a wide variety of competitive activities. Which lead to the decrease in physical activity among kids and teenagers in America in the past few years. In the United States, the physical education curriculum is designed to allow school pupils exposure to the education with the use of pedometer, GPS, and heart rate monitors. Some martial arts classes, like wrestling in the United States, and Pencak Silat in France and Malaysia, are taught to teach children self-defense and to feel good about themselves. The physical education curriculum is designed to allow students to experience at least a minimum exposure to the following categories of activities: aquatics, conditioning activities, gymnastics, individual/dual sports, team sports, rhythms, and dance. Students are encouraged to continue to explore those activities in which they have a primary interest by effectively managing their community resources. In these areas, a planned sequence of learning experiences is designed to support a progression of student development. This allows kids through 6th grade to be introduced to sports, fitness, and teamwork in order to be better prepared for the middle and high school age. In 1975, the United States House of Representatives voted to require school physical education classes include both genders.Some high school and some middle school PE classes are single-sex. Requiring individuals to participate in physical education activities, such as dodgeball, flag football, and other competitive sports. This remains a controversial subject because of the social impact these games have on young children.

In Singapore, pupils from primary school through junior colleges are required to have 2 hours of PE every school week, except during examination seasons. Pupils are able to play games like football, badminton, 'captain's ball' and basketball during most sessions. Unorthodox sports such as tchoukball, fencing and skateboarding are occasionally played. In more prestigious secondary schools and in junior colleges, sports such as golf, tennis, shooting, squash are played. A compulsory fitness exam, NAPFA, is conducted in every school once every year to assess the physical fitness of the pupils. Pupils are given a series of fitness tests (Pull-ups/ Inclined pull-ups for girls, standing broad jump, sit-ups, sit-and-reach and 1.2 km for secondary/2.4 km for junior colleges run). Students are graded by gold, silver, bronze and fail. NAPFA for Year 2 males in junior colleges serves as an indicator for an additional 2 months in the country's compulsory national service if they attain bronze or fail.In Scotland, pupils are expected to do two periods of PE in first year, one in second year and two in third and fourth year. In fifth and sixth year, PE is voluntary.

In the Philippines, some schools have integrated martial arts training into their Physical Education cirriculum.In England, pupils are expected to do two hours of PE a week in Year 7, 8 and 9 and at least 1 in year 10 and 11.In Wales, pupils are expected to do one hour of PE per fortnight.Nepal has passed through many educational changes recently. It has not gone very far in the sector of education because the educational history of Nepal is very short. Before 1951, it had a monarchy. The monarchy did not wish to provide education to the citizens as it did not wish them to be educated and therefore politically aware. Institution of democracy did not result in a modern educational system; what education there was walked like a lame turtle. After 10 years of democracy the country again plunged into an autocratic monarchy. In 1990 democracy was restored and the education sector started to flourish.Since then, Physical education became part of the school curriculum. At the primary level (1-5), some minor and local games are taught, like hide and seek and some athletic based local events. In lower secondary level (6-8), the students are taught general concepts on major games like football, volleyball, basket ball, Kho-Kho and Kabaddi. They also learn some athletics like 100m race 100*4m relay race and some other minor and lead up games. In class Nine and ten it is an optional subject where they specialize in some games like volleyball, basketball, handball, cricket, Kho Kho Kabaddi, Badminton, table tennis and some athletics are also taught. In college it is taught in the education stream. Even though it is included in school curriculum, Nepal is not able to produce any worthwhile products of games and sports for reasons ranging from poverty to decentralized government.

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